The Improbable Poetry of the Americas

Since the end of World War II, the United States has been the world’s superpower, a condition that was confirmed in 1991 with the demise of the Soviet Union.  To speak, then, of a “Poetry of the Americas” is, to a certain extent, to speak of a poetry of centrality. The advantages achieved by the force of American capitalism have given American poets worldwide visibility.

The usual cultural flow was inverted: American poetry came to influence and nourish the various poetries of Europe and—to a lesser extent—of Latin America. Through the opposite mechanism, the United States exported its modernism (Objectivism, Imagism, Gertrude Stein) to Europe and fascinated the other Americas.

However, for that very reason, the centrality of the poetry of the Americas must be historically understood, above all. There are no Brazilian poets or Spanish American poets who have influenced American poetry. In fact, America poetry, in practice, as far as I know, is self-referential. With the notable exception of Ezra Pound, few American poets made dialogue with the Western tradition the focus of their writing. L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E poetry, for example, is an exclusively American phenomenon that did not have the need of any external avant-garde influences in order to constitute itself.[1] In L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E poetry there are European influences that were already present in the tradition of the American avant-garde. In the opposite direction, two American poets were, on the other hand, crucial for Brazilian concrete poetry: Ezra Pound and e. e. cummings, besides Stéphane Mallarmé, James Joyce, the German Bauhaus, etc.

But there are cases in which anti-Americanism, or at least a sentiment of resistance against the United States is a sort of missing link in the way certain South American Blocs came together. In general, this kind of alliance by reaction was unsuccessful, as in the case of the Latin American boom, a movement that was more folksy and touristy than politically committed and relevant in literary terms.

There have been other attempts at rapprochement between Spanish Americans and Brazilians, as is the case of the Neobaroque or “Neobarroso,” which tried to link the poetry of the River Plate regions. It was, however, artificial in relation to Latin American traditions themselves, and fallacious if not naïve in relation to the clearly European models of the historical baroque.


2. The Brazilian poet Oswald de Andrade (1890-1954) attempted to break with the Portuguese colonizer and proposed, in broad terms, the colonization of all colonizers: “Let us divide. Imported poetry. And Brazilwood Poetry” (“Brazilwood Poetry Manifesto,” 1924). The cannibalist mechanism devised in 1928 and expressed in the “Cannibalist Manifesto,” would be the “national” filter used for reading materials coming from abroad and the instrument that would allow a new poetry to be forged—a new and different “poetry for export.” These words, uttered directly to the Portuguese colonizer, were assumed to be applicable to the United States as well (“Against all the importers of canned conscience”—also referring to manufactured items in the mentioned “Cannibalist Manifesto”). And there’s no dearth of historical arguments for this proposal. The British historian Norman Davies observes that the history of the expansion of the United States across the North American continent following its independence and the settlement of white colonizers in the lands of Native Americans hardly differs from the expansion of European powers in Asia, Africa, Australia, and South America.[2]


3. These basic observations lead me to believe that a “poetry of the Americas” is a hope, a utopian seed, but whose unity, paradoxically, when formulated, necessarily introduces the egg of an ideological serpent. Formulated in Charles Bernstein’s terms, I understand the concept as a benign ecumenism, as a civilizing attempt to tame globalized savagery, whose most direct effect for poetry would be to put poets in touch with each other. But without wanting to show a rancorous reaction or reject the hope that is being drafted here, let us think a bit more about the differences that this problematic plural, Americas (and not America), entails.

The colonial trait, and then that of economic dependency, unites all cultures of the Americas, except that of the United States. The Latin American literary models are European. Which is not enough to even postulate a unity among these diverse countries. This is obvious from a variety of angles, but I will limit myself to a single and decisive one, in my view: surrealism marked Spanish American literatures, something that never happened with Brazilian literature, whose influences were more constructivist, except in one or two important poets, such as Murilo Mendes.


4. As everyone knows, Latin America suffered at the hand of bloody dictators supported by the American government, such as Chile’s Augusto Pinochet, who destabilized the difficult construction of democracy in South America. For all non-North Americans, the postwar period was marked precisely by American interventionism, which, at times, besides politics, promoted unique poetic currents, with well-defined profiles, different from American poetry.

If an American speaks about a “poetry of the Americas” to a Spanish American or a Brazilian, even against their will, they will wonder skeptically if the idea is not at the service, culturally speaking, of the Monroe Doctrine. This should not come as a surprise. There are reasons for this skepticism. As soon as they became independent in 1776, the United States adopted the mechanism of the European colonizer, annexing parts of Mexico and Central America. Such a phenomenon did not happen, unless in limited cases of border disputes, in any other country on the continent. Obviously, such political and cultural inequalities make it quite difficult the dialogue that is forged in between the cracks, by a few poets, without configuring a “poetry of the Americas.”

There is no historical unity between the blocs, other than on mythical grounds. The colonial imprint and later that of economic dependency unites all the cultures of the Americas, except that of the United States.


5. Therefore—I insist—there is no such thing as a poetic identity of the Americas. In Brazil we don’t even use the term “Americas.” The continent seems divided, once and for all, into three blocs: United States and Canada Spanish America (Mexico, the Caribbean, and South America), and Brazil, the only Portuguese-speaking country.

But the three blocs are much more than three. American identities are multiple, and are evidently irreducible to a unity, and, actually with very little experience of egalitarian dialogue among them.  Clearly, I continue to contemplate on horizon of possibility the ecumenism of Bernstein’s proposition as a civilized alternative for interaction and for an increase in cultural exchange, but in some way, I consider it historically ill-founded. As the Italian Cesare Pavese (1908-1950) affirmed, a culture that does not entail effort, that is not live work, doesn’t mean anything. Bernstein’s attempt—I imagine—will not be lost.

I say all this without victimizing Brazil or its literature. Brazil is among the 10 largest economies in the world for the last two decades; it represents 47.7% of the South American continent and 20.8% of the Americas. Brazil has produced some of the greatest and most original writers in the world, such as Joaquim de Sousândrade (1833-1902), Augusto dos Anjos (1884-1914), Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis (1939-1908), Afonso Henriques de Lima Barreto (1881-1922), Oswald de Andrade (1890-1954), João Guimarães Rosa (1908-1967), Clarice Lispector (1920-1977), Carlos Drummond de Andrade (1902-1987), Murilo Mendes (1901-1975), João Cabral de Melo Neto (1920-1999), Raul Bopp (1898-1984), and the Concrete Poetry movement in the 1950s and 60s (Haroldo de Campos, Décio Pignatari and Augusto de Campos), etc. Brazil has formed equally a cultural singularity, which is rich and diverse, and is perhaps only matched by Cuba or the United States.


Because of this, I prefer to say that there are matchless poets in the Americas, but there is no poetry of the Americas. Along those lines, I leave you with a list of poets of the three Americas who have been important to me:

Uruguay: Eduardo Milán, who has lived in Mexico for the last thirty years; Chile: Vicente Huidobro (1893-1948), Gonzalo Millán (1947-2006), a recent discovery, and the younger poets Felipe Cussen and Andrés Ajens; Argentina: Oliverio Girondo (1891-1967) and Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986), whom I personally met; Peru: César Vallejo (1892-1938) and the contemporary poets Rodolfo Hinostroza and Antonio Cisneros; Cuba: Nicolás Guillén (1902-1989), Mariano Brull (1891-1956) and the contemporary poets Rolando Sánchez Mejías and Pedro Marqués de Armas; Mexico: Octavio Paz (1914-1998); United States: Ezra Pound, e. e. cummings, William Carlos William, George Oppen, John Cage, Robert Creeley (a great interlocutor who opened my eyes to new horizons), Allen Ginsberg, Gregory Corso, Paul Blackburn and the novelist Truman Capote, author of In Cold Blood; one black American musician was crucial for me: Jimi Hendrix; among contemporary poets, Douglas Messerli and Charles Bernstein, with whom I’ve had a long and permanent dialogue, and the literary critic Marjorie Perloff; I also had a dialogue with Michael Palmer; Brazil: Carlos Drummond de Andrade, Murilo Mendes, João Cabral de Melo Neto, Oswald de Andrade, Mário Faustino (1930-1960), Augusto de Campos, Décio Pignatari, Haroldo de Campos (1929-2003), Torquato Neto (1944-1972) and Paulo Leminski (1944-1989); I had personal contact with Caetano Veloso, towards the end of the 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s which was significant for me; among contemporary poets, I would cite Nelson Ascher (though we have divergent ideologies); and, among the younger poets, I value Josely Vianna Baptista, Luis Dolhnikoff, Sérgio Medeiros, Douglas Diegues and others. I could not leave out the name of the literary critic Alcir Pécora.


Odile Cisneros points out, rendering both the main thesis of this text and Charles Bernstein’s thesis (in the sense that the topic is not exactly new), that there has historically been dialogue among poets of the Americas. She notes that the Nicaraguan poet Rubén Darío (1867-1916) and the Cuban poet José Martí (1853-1895) read and admired Walt Whitman. The Brazilian poet Mário de Andrade (1893-1945) makes the following remark in the “Prefácio interessantíssimo” of Pauliceia desvairada (1922), the book that launched modern poetry in Brazil: “Have you already read Walt Whitman? Mallarmé?” Cisneros speaks of a Pan-American spirit. The presence of Whitman in Spanish American poetry, she argues, would be a good topic for a book. The Brazilian poet Ronald de Carvalho (1893-1935), she adds, wrote a poetry volume entitled Toda a América (All of America), published in 1926, which was translated into Spanish by Francisco Villaespesa and published in 1935, with repercussion in all of the Spanish-speaking Americas. Octavio Paz influenced poets such as Robert Duncan and Denise Levertov, Cisneros, a professor in Edmonton, concludes. Her point about Ronald de Carvalho’s Toda a América is very relevant. Besides participating in the Brazilian Week of Modern Art in 1922, Ronald de Carvalho was the only Brazilian poet who had contact with the Portuguese modernist poets Fernando Pessoa (1888-1935) and Mário de Sá-Carneiro (1890-1916), even managing to publish in the review Orpheu (1915), edited by these two poets, veritable giants of all of Portuguese-language poetry. Carvalho was posted to Lisbon as a diplomat in 1914, and returned to Brazil in 1919. I quote an essay by Antonio Donizeti da Cruz entitled “Identity and Alterity in Ronald de Carvalho’s Toda a América: The Link of the Local and the Global”: “America—in the words of Octavio Paz—is the ‘sudden incarnation of a European utopia. The dream becomes reality, a present; a now that is colored with the hue of tomorrow. The presence and the present of America are a future […] Its being, its reality or substance consists of always being a future, a history that does not justify itself in the past, but rather in what is to come […] America was not; it only exists if it is a utopia.’” I quote here the last stanza of Carvalho’s poem “Broadway”: “Epic ground, lyric ground, idealistic ground,/ Broadway’s indifferent ground,/ wide, flat, practical and simple in the air, this/ smooth roof, suspended in the air, this roof, where a/ saxophone pours out a warm stupor of slave quarters’ sun.” For Octavio Paz, the dialogue points in the direction of plurality and the monologue, towards identity, and he concludes: “Poetry was always an attempt at resolving such discord through the exchange of terms: the ‘I’ of the monologue into the ‘you’ of the monologue. Poetry does not say: I am you; it says, my I is you. The poetic image is otherness.” Here’s the link to Antonio Donizete da Cruz’s essay:


As yet another discussion of Toda a América, I cite the following link:


English translation: Odile Cisneros



Leia também esse texto em português



1. Charles Bernstein observes regarding my argument on the U.S. centeredness: “This is true in a general way, but it misses lots of details. Rothenberg/Ethnopoetics (including for example Clayton Eshleman) were committed to influence from outside U.S., both from ‘fourth world’/indigenous in Rothenberg’s case to South American poets/poetry; the culmination being Rothenberg’s Poems of the Millennium; so he’d be a crucial addition to your list, it seems to me and important corrective to Pound’s approach to internationalism. Our small circle at L= in New York were deeply affected by the Russian Futurists, for example (whose work was just emerging in the 70s) and we also were thinking of the connection of various European avant-gardes, specifically to move outside of the insular U.S. centered traditions (Duchamp, Dada, Surrealism, Concrete and Visual Poetry, French poetry). And there has been throughout the history of radical poetics of the U.S. a deep exchange with French poetry and between poets. Of course you are leaving out the relation of U.S. poetry to British poetry. It’s fair to say at least in the 70s and 80s the North-South connection was far less significant (though of course that has radically shifted in the last decade or two) for those around L=. But also any number of specific poets in the 20th century there would be connections/influences outside the U.S., though the centripital force of U.S.-centeredness is very powerful as has been the ideology of putting out foreign influences”.

2. Norman Davies, Europa na Guerra (1939-1944), Editora Record, Rio de Janeiro, 2009.


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Tuesday, 10/13

a reading by Brazilian poet Régis Bonvicino presented by Writers Without Borders
6:00 pm in the Arts Cafe
introduced by:
Charles Bernstein

Writers Without Borders features writers from around the world whose fiction, drama, poetry, memoir, journalism, and performance art demand an international — and, what’s more, a globally minded — readership and response. Support for Writers Without Borders comes from the Office of the Provost, supplemented by a generous start-up grant from Seth Ginns (C’00).

The author of eleven books of poetry, along with several translations and an anthology of contemporary Brazilian poetry he co-edited, Régis Bonvicino has come to be recognized as one of the most talented and innovative of Brazilian writers. Bonvicino’s poetry combines an intense, sprung lyricism with an engagement with artifice of poetic construction. His poems are filled with the imagery of nature, but it is also very much about the dystopia of urban spaces, and especially São Paulo, where he lives. And while his poems often contain narrative passages, for the most part Bonvicino’s work is centered on the play of sound and syntax, of rhyme and intense rhythmic shifts. Among his many publications are   Página órfã, Ossos de borboleta, 33 poemas, Más companhias, Remorso do cosmos, Primeiro tempo, and a children’s book, Num zoológico de letras. English translations of his work (by many hands, from Michael Palmer to Robert Creeley) are collected in Sky Eclipse (2000, Green Integer). Bonvicino has edited and translated Oliverio Girondo’s work and books by Jules Laforgue, Robert Creeley, Charles Bernstein and Douglas Messerli. He also edited the correspondence of Brazilian poet and novelist Paulo Leminski and is especially engaged with the work of Brazillian poets Carlos Drummond de Andrade, Decio Pignatari, and João Cabral de Melo Neto. Bonvicino is editor of Sibila after 11 print issues, the magazine has now moved on-line. His author page is at and his PennSound page,

Wednesday, October 14, 7:00 pm

CORRESPONDENCES: A Reading & Conversation with Charles Bernstein & Régis Bonvicino

Charles Bernstein
Charles Bernstein

Charles Bernstein speaks with Brazilian poet and editor
Régis Bonvicino about contemporary Brazilian poetry, translation and, more generally, the poetics of the Americas.

$10, $7 for students and seniors, Free to Poets House Members

Regis Bonvicino
Régis Bonvicino